Serbian Hottest Spots , Kalemegdan Fortress In Belgrade
Travel With Zorica! Today We’re taking you to Kalemegdan Fortress in Belgrade.On the hill, next to the confluence of two rivers, Sava and Danube, a small but significant settlement aroused during prehistory. The earliest attested evidence of inhabitation dates back in Neolithic period. Next to the so called fountain of Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic, in October 2017, Serbian archaeologists have discovered a Neolithic settlement which dates back in 4800 to 3500 BC.
The remains of mollusks are implying that they were included into the diet of Neolithic people, as well as the abundance of fishes hunted in Sava and Danube. The Neolithic settlement in Kalamunda fortress included the rectangular houses made of poles, wattle and mud applied to the wattle. The floors of the houses were made of well beaten mud and then colored, as well as the walls.
Archaeologists have discovered a hand made pottery shreds around the hearths. Also, they have discovered two urns from the Bronze Age period which proves that life didn’t ceased from this area after Vinca culture experienced the break down under the influenceof Salkuca-Krivodol culture. After unsuccessful campaign on Delphi in 279 BC, Celts have invaded this area and settled down on territory of Serbia, coming into a contact with Autariati and Illyrian tribes.
The fact that Celts did not settled down on the territory of Kalemegdan fortress but onKaraburma region, made us start thinking that they were in some kind of symbiosis with Illyric tribes and Autariati. The Roman influence on Kalemegdan fortress is easily noticeable in northeastern partof Upper Town, next to the so called Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic fountain. Around 10 meters long Roman wall has been excavated in 2017. It took few weeks to excavators to clean up 1000 cubic meters of earth to uncover the wall.
After successful reconstruction and restoration, the wall is exhibited next to the fountain. Probably between 6 to 11 AD, Rome experienced a massive attack of barbarian tribes which led them to start thinking about system of fortifications to keep those Barbarians out of Roman Empire. The first Roman military camp Signinum dates back at the same time. As the time progressed, Signinum grown it’s importance as a stronghold against the barbarian tribes and inevitably it caused Rome to station one of the legions there. It was so called 4th Legion Flaviae. Also, it was known as the Lucky one.
And how do we know about it? Well, it was well known that Roman legions carried out a building activity across the Empire and to prove that they used stamp marks with legion name on the bricks. Even though the first Roman fort in Singidunum was a mere a wooden palisade, the next phaseof defence system was a war machine, so called castrum. 4 towered fort walls granted security to the inhabitants and kept barbarian tribes off the Roman Empire. In the 2nd century AD, Singidunum got a status of municipium.
It was probably during the reign of Emperor Hadrian. In the 3rd century AD, Singidunum was inaugurated into a colony. After the division of Roman Empire in 395 AD, Singidunum saw many conflicts and turbulencesin the years to come. It was a Byzantine Emperor Justinian I who put efforts to resurrect Singidunum from theashes. Due to the multiple barbarian attacks, he was forced to transfer the capital from Byzantiumto Iustiniana Prima on Mt Jelica next to the town Cacak. And that decision made this region prominent. The first attested mention of Beligrad, is tied to a letter sent by pope John the 8thto Bulgarian prince Boris. It was dated in 16th of April 878 AD. From 9th to 16th century AD, Singidunum saw many conflicts and changed many masters.
During the Ottoman rule over Serbia, Belgrade has a prominent role as a basis for campaigns against Europe. From that time we have two monuments: fountain of Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic and Turbeh (a tomb)of Damad Ali Pasha. Later history of Kalemegdan fortress saw conflicts between Austro-Hungarians, Ottomans and Serbians. The modern history of Kalemegdan fortress commemorates a date of 1946 when Kalemegdanfortress ended up on the list of monuments cultural heritage of Serbia.